Abstract

The research question of the study is “How are practical know-hows used in shoe manufacturing processes and how can these be transformed into design solutions?” The aim of the study to reveal how practical know-hows are used in shoe manufacturing processes and how can these be transformed into design solutions. It will answer this question for designers; “Can practical know-hows be a key for improving or create new design solutions for shoe manufacturing process?” Research is helpful for industry and for designers. The answer of the questions provide them to understand how they transform accumulated skills and experiences to create a new design solutions or improve existing solutions. In the literature review, the differences between the practical knowhows’ and design solutions’ types were researched. It was found as a fact that the practical knowhows are implicit, but the design solutions are explicit. The method of the study is a case study that includes interview and observation techniques. The interviews and observations were made in Raker Company, which manufactures shoes in İzmir, Turkey. The workers and managers shared their knowledge for the research. Interview and observation results corroborated the argument. The transformation of the practical methods in shoe manufacture into design solutions supported the importance of the production speed and standardization.In this research, it was proved that the knowledge of the workers in shoe production was used as a implicit knowledge in general.

Keywords: Shoe manufacturing, practical know-hows, design solutions

1. Introduction

When we think that earliest known shoes are approximately 8.000 years old (Racilious, 2010), we realize the improvement of shoe manufacturing how long time it takes. During the 18th century, shoe manufacturing was still a traditional handcraft, it wasn’t industrialized. In the early 19th century, shoe manufacturing began to industrialization and mechanization.

Despite this industrilaziton and mechanization, skilled people are needed for production band. Because shoe production is too complex to get full mechanization and it has many variable. This complexity and existence of the variables incapacitate production techniques and it directs employees to create specific know hows.

This study researches know hows which is used by skilled employees in the shoe manufacturing process; how they are transformed into design solutions. This study is carried out by this question; “How are practical know-hows used in shoe manufacturing processes and how can these be transformed into design solutions?”

The aim of this article is observation of how are know-hows effect the production in shoe manufacturing, what are the benefits of them to the employees and how manufacturers can improve quality of production.

The method of the study is a case study that includes interview and observation techniques. Raker Company, a show manufacturer in İzmir, helped the research during the interviewing and observation phase of the thesis. Both the employees and the managers shared their knowledges with us.

In literature review shoe manufacturing of Turkey and world has been researched in Chapter 2.

What kind of knowledge are know-hows and design solutions, how are employees learn them transfer and implement them are researched in Chapter 3.

In analyze part there are differences between know-hows and design solutions and there is an observation about the transformation know-hows to design solutions. These data and observations are taken from Raker Company which is located in İzmir.

2. Shoe Manufacturing and Its Processes

This part is divided into two main parts. Firstly, shoe manufacturing in Turkey and in the world are explained. In second part, shoe manufacturing processes are explained briefly.

2.1 Shoe Manufacturing in Turkey and in the World

According to World Footwear Yearbook, the total capacity of shoe manufacturing in the world is 21 billion pairs for a year.  China has the largest shoe manufacturing capacity in the world with 12 billion 887 million shoe pairs for a year (World Footwear Yearbook, 2012).

Republic of Turkey Ministry of Economy (2014) states that footwear sector in Turkey has developed rapidly. These developments content advanced manufacturing processes, the availability of quality raw materials, skilled workers and high design qualification. Nowadays, the sector has a strong position among exporters of qualified shoes. At the same time, foreign investments in the sector has developed day by day.

The footwear industry of the other countries are dependent on the leather industry of Turkey. Leather industry combines new technology and 500 years of historical background to continue to develop day by day.

In Turkey, when we examine the history of footwear manufacturing, shoe manufacturing sector had shown great improvement from 1950. Especially from 1980’s, the sector has evolved at a rapid advancement due to skilled workers, the availability of major quality raw materials, modern manufacturing process and high design capacity.

Nowadays, production capacity of Turkey are approximately 500 million pairs shoe for a year. Sixty-seven percentage of the production is from industrialized companies, thirty-three percentage of the production is from semi-industrialized companies or handwork ateliers in Turkey.  The shoe sector is selling ninety percent of its production from internal market (Republic of Turkey – Ministry of Economy, 2014).

Table 1 shows Turkey’s footwear annual values of exports by years.

Table 1, Annual Exports of Turkey, (Genç, 2005)

Turkey’s Footwear Exports  
Years Value (ABD Dollars)
2002 131.883
2003 183.788
2004 204.916
2005 215.792
2006 237.069
2007 316.739
2008 344.889
2009 289.472.603
2010 395.624.111
2011 441.246.902
2012 545.923.172
2013 723.275.252

TOBB (2014) states that the footwear sector in Turkey takes part in important exhibitions  and international fairs such as; GSD Shoe Fair, Motexha Spring Fair, Mosshoes Moscow, Micam Shoe event etc. Major fairs provide benefit to Turkish footwear industry. Major National shoe fairs are listed below in Table 2.

Table 2. Major National Shoe Fairs of Turkey (TOBB, 2014)

Fair City Organizer
Footwear Summer – Shoes, Bags And Accessories Fair İzmir www.izfas.com.tr
AYSAF – International Footwear Industry (Suppliers Fair) İstanbul www.pozitiffuarcilik.com
AYMOD – International Footwear (Fashion Fair) İstanbul www.pozitiffuarcilik.com
GAPSHOES – Footwear, Slipper, Saddlery And Footwear Industry (Suppliers Fair) Gaziantep www.ofm.com.tr
Footwear Winter – Izmir (Shoes,Bags And Accessories Fair) İzmir www.izfas.com.tr
AYSAF – International Footwear (Industry Suppliers Fair) İstanbul www.pozitiffuarcilik.com
AYMOD – International Footwear (Fashion Fair) İstanbul www.pozitiffuarcilik.com
IDF 2014 Istanbul – Leather Fair İstanbul  
CNR Leather & Fur 2014 Fair İstanbul www.pozitiffuarcilik.com
GAPSHOES – Footwear, Slipper, Saddlery And Footwear Industry (Suppliers Fair) Gaziantep www.ofm.com.tr

2.2 Shoe Manufacturing Processes

The shoe manufacturing consists of several stages in itself. This separation is determined different because of degree of industrialization such as semi-industrialized and industrialized companies. However the shoe manufacturing processes are generally categorized in six main stage such as; upper components cutting, stitching, outsole production, insole production, assembly process and finishing process (Dorothy, 2006).

The shoe manufacturing chart given below in Figure 1 shows both order of these stages, relation each-other and resource usages except finishing stage.

Figure 1. Shoe Manufacturing (Dorothy, 2006)

These general processes are briefly explained under below titles.

2.2.1 Upper Component Cutting

In upper component cutting process, the top of the shoe is made. Generally, the clicking or cutting techniques are used. Mostly cow leather skins and imitation skins are used for raw material. Metal strip knives are used for clicking to cut pieces of various shapes that will take the form of uppers. This stage needs a high skill as the valued leather has to be minimum wasted as possible. The workers in this department must be careful because leather may also have various faults on the surface (Textile Exchange, 2009).

2.2.2 Stitching Process

In this process, the component pieces are sewn and become three-dimensional. The highly skilled workers are divided some stages in this process. In the first stage, the workers sew pieces together on flat machine. Second stage, the sewing surface of the machine is elevated to enable to sew the 3-dimensional upper (Textile Exchange, 2009)

2.2.3 Outsole Production

Outsole production process prepares the outsoles which are the bottom layers of shoe in direct contact with the ground. Rubber, synthetic imitation and leather outsoles are produced. These outsoles may comprise a single piece, or may comprise separate pieces of different materials (MEGEP, 2005).

2.2.4 Insole Production

Insole production prepares insoles which is the interior bottom of shoe. Insoles is the part of shoes that sits directly beneath the foot. They may be removable, replaceable or extra. Insoles are added to control the shape, moisture and smell of the shoe for comfort or health reasons (MEGEP, 2005).

2.2.5 Assembly

The completed uppers are stretched and molded to shape of foot with the help of molds in this process. Shoes are entered with molds in furnaces to maintain their shapes. Outsoles attached the shoes which are molded with clue or direct injection. Later, molds are removed from finished shoes. After these procedure completes, a “last shoe” is obtained (MEGEP, 2005).

2.2.6 Finishing

Finishing process depends on the material used for shoe. However, when we examine in overview, finishing department attach the insoles, trimmed outsoles, provide to be waterproof with polish and waxes, make pattern etc. A “finished shoe” has been made. Later, manufacturer’s details or a brand name is applied. Laces and any tags might have to be attached to shoes. Finally, shoes are packaged to go to users (MEGEP, 2005).

3. Practical Know-Hows and Design Solutions

This part of the study aimed to establish a relationship between practical know-hows and design solutions for transformation of practical know-hows to design solutions. These relationship between them is shown under two titles.

The first title will be “Terminological Descriptions” to explain practical knowledge and design knowledge, terminologically. In second part, practical know-hows as implicit knowledge and design solutions as explicit knowledge are described.

3.1 Terminological Descriptions

3.1.1 Practical Knowledge

Practical knowledge is a term for skills which are spontaneously learned by continuous application of theoretical ideas in life of human as in terminological. Practical knowledge often leads to understanding of a concept through the action of doing and personal experiences. On the other hand, principal learned aren’t easily forgotten (Guzman, 2009).

3.1.2 Design Knowledge

According to Cross (1982) defines design knowledge as follow:

Design knowledge is a formal technique for practical, creative solution of problems or questions, with the intent of an improved future result. In this regard it is a form of solution-based, or solution-focused thinking which starts with a goal instead of solving one specific problem. By considering both the present and future conditions, the parameters of the problem, and possible solutions, may be explored simultaneously. Cross asserted that this type of thinking most often happens in the built, or artificial, environment (Cross, 1982).

This approach differs from the scientific method, which begins with thoroughly defining all the parameters of the problem in order to create a solution. Design thinking starts without preconceived problem definitions and solutions, in order to discover hidden parameters and alternate optimized paths to the goal. Because Design Thinking is also iterative, any solutions are also potential new starting points for future phases (Cross, 1982).

3.2 Practical Know-hows as an Implicit Knowledge and Design Solutions as an Explicit Knowledge

In this part of study, firstly explicit and implicit knowledge are examined to describe practical know-hows and design solutions as knowledge. In second part, design knowledge and practical knowledge in mental functioning is described.

3.2.1 Explicit and Implicit Knowledge

Tulving (1984) states that “Semantic and episodic memory together make up the category of declarative memory, which is one of the two major divisions of memory – the other is implicit memory.”

Knowledge on the division made by Tulving (1984) above is shown in Figure 2 below by Dorothy (2006)

Figure 2. Classification of Knowledge (Dorothy, 2006)

In the Brain Website, it is written “Implicit memory is a type of memory in which previous experiences aid in the performance of a task without conscious awareness of these previous experiences. Evidence for implicit memory arises in priming, a process whereby subjects are measured by how they have improved their performance on tasks for which they have been subconsciously prepared. “

“Implicit memory also leads to the illusion-of-truth effect, which suggests that subjects are more likely to rate as true those statements that they have already heard, regardless of their veracity. In daily life, people rely on implicit memory every day in the form of procedural memory, the type of memory that allows people to remember how to tie their shoes or ride a bicycle without consciously thinking about these activities. Research into implicit memory indicates that it operates through a different mental process from explicit memory.”(The Brain, n.d.)

“Semantic memory refers to the memory of meanings, understandings, and other concept-based knowledge, and underlies the conscious recollection of factual information and general knowledge about the world. “(The Brain, n.d.)

“Implicit knowledge (as opposed to formal, codified or explicit knowledge) is the kind of knowledge that is difficult to transfer to another person by means of writing it down or verbalizing it. The term “implicit knowing” or “implicit knowledge” was first introduced into philosophy by Michael Polanyi in 1958 in his magnum opus Personal Knowledge. He famously introduces the idea in his later work The Implicit Dimension with the assertion that “we can know more than we can tell.” (Polanyi, 1966)

According to him, not only is the knowledge that cannot be adequately articulated by verbal means, but also all knowledge is rooted in implicit knowledge in the strong sense of that term.

“With implicit knowledge, people are not often aware of the knowledge they possess or how it can be valuable to others. Effective transfer of implicit knowledge generally requires extensive personal contact, regular interaction and trust.” (Goffin, K., Koners, U. 2011) This kind of knowledge can only be revealed through practice in a particular context and transmitted through social networks. To some extent it is “captured” when the knowledge holder joins a network or a community of practice.” (Goffin, K. & Koners, U. 2011)

Differences of Implicit and Explicit Knowledge

Implicit knowledge can be distinguished from explicit knowledge in three major differences. According to articles, differences between implicit and explicit knowledge like this;

Difference 1 – cod able and mechanism of transferring knowledge:

While explicit knowledge can be codified, and easily transferred without the knowing subject, implicit knowledge is intuitive and unarticulated knowledge that cannot be communicated, understood or used without the ‘knowing subject’. Unlike the transfer of explicit knowledge, the transfer of implicit knowledge requires close interaction and the buildup of shared understanding and trust among them.

Difference 2 – Main methods for the acquisition and accumulation:

Explicit knowledge can be generated through logical deduction and acquired through practical experience in the relevant context. In contrast, implicit knowledge can only be acquired through practical experience in the relevant context.

Difference 3 – Potential of aggregation and modes of appropriation:

Explicit knowledge can be aggregated at a single location, stored in objective forms and appropriated without the participation of the knowing subject. Implicit knowledge in contrast, is personal contextual. It is distributive, and cannot easily be aggregated. The realization of its full potential requires the close involvement and cooperation of the knowing subject.

The process of transforming implicit knowledge into explicit or specifiable knowledge is known as codification, articulation, or specification. The implicit aspects of knowledge are those that cannot be codified, but can only be transmitted via training or gained through personal experience. There is a view against the distinction, where it is believed that all propositional knowledge (knowledge that) is ultimately reducible to practical knowledge (Hetherington, 2011).

3.2.2 Design Knowledge and Practical Knowledge as in Mental Functioning

Knowledge is the acquaintance with the facts and information. Its means of that you know it, in your head. However, know-how is a type of knowledge of how to do something. In other words, know-how is the ability to perform a task or action. On the other hands, when they are examined as in mental operation, the study realize that practical knowledge is an implicit knowledge, design knowledge is an explicit knowledge.

Design knowledge is both semantic and episodic knowledge. Its means of that designing activity is administrated by declarative (semantic and episodic) memory of the designer. Episodic and semantic knowledge are used together to generate a design idea.

On the other hand, practical knowledge and know-hows is an implicit knowledge. They are administrated by implicit memory.

When we examine the differences between explicit and implicit knowledge, we recognize the differences between design knowledge and practical knowledge such as; being coded and mechanism of transferring knowledge, main method for the acquisition and accumulation, potential of aggregation and modes of appropriation (Hetherington, 2011).

4. Methodology

In the literature review, the information we obtained about the design solutions and practical knowhows were also overviewed with the employees and the managers in Raker Company. The observation and interview techniques were used in order to evaluate the outcome of the field research.

4.1 Case Study

For the case study, Raker Company was selected. The main criteria for that was Raker to manufacture in the neo-production method.

Neo-production is used by semi-industrialized companies.

It was thought that in semi-industrialized production more practical know-how was used because of the main basis of that production to be on labor work.

4.1.1 Observation: Practical Know-hows used in Shoe Manufacturing

The first main method used in this study is observation. Purpose of the observation is answer these questions; “How practical know-hows learned and used by workers in shoe manufacturing processes?”, “How can practical know-hows be transformed into design solutions? Or “Is it possible?”, “Does transformation practical know-hows to design solutions provide advantage or disadvantage?”, “What might be these?” etc.

4.1.2 Interview

The aim of this research is transform practical know-hows that is personal experiential skills to design solution in shoe manufacturing sector. Therefore, a type of method used in this article is also case interview conducted at Raker Company. Case interview provide to examine thinking of both workers and company owners about transformation know-hows used in ateliers to design solutions.

This interview aims to investigate through the know-hows used in the steps of production.

In addition, interview is applied according to common manufacturing processes.

Table 3. Interview Questions for Workers of Raker Company

Questions Aim of the Questions
What is your name?  
Where are you working?  
How long do you working in shoe manufacturing? Establishing a connection and comparison between the usage of the practical know-hows and the experience length of the employees.
What is your department?  
What is your mission in your department?  
Do you use practical know-hows in your mission? To find our whether the practical know-hows were used or not.
If there are, please explain these practical know-hows. To make a list of practical know-how usage in different departments.
How did you learn these practical know-hows? To learn the emergence and obtainment path og the practical know-hows.
Who or where did you learn these partical know-hows? To find out by whom and where these practical know-hows were transmitted
What are advantages and disadvantages of practical know-hows? To learn the advantages and disadvantages of the practical know-hows.

Below at table 4, are the interview questions that were reflected to the company owners.

Table 4. Interview Questions for Business Manager of Raker Company

Questions Aims of Questions
What is your name?  
What is your company name?  
How long do you working in shoe manufacturing? To compare and contrast the usage of the practical know-hows and the time length of the workers experience
In your company, does practical know-hows are used?  
In your company, does inform workers about practical know-hows?  
If yes, please explain these practical know-hows? In order to find out if the company managers know about these practical know-hows
Do you instruct your workers about practical know-hows? To understand whether the employees get instructions about these practical know-hows
What could be benefits of systematic solutions which replace the know-hows used in your company?  
What could be advantages of transformation practical know-hows to design solutions?  

5. Analysis and Synthesis

5.1 Results and Data Analysis

The interview results of Raker Company are listed below. The interview questions were asked to randomly selected employee of each department.

Table 4. Answers of Erdinç Özbek in Upper Component Cutting Department

Name – Surname : Erdinç Özbek
Workplace : Raker Company
Department : Upper Component Cutting
Missions of him in this department : Cutting
How long does he working in this department? : 25 years
Do you use practical know-hows? : Yes
The know-hows used in upper component cutting department by Erdinç Özbek; The plastic material is folded face to face, touching the front sides to each other. Then cut layer by layer in order to make the production more time and cost efficient.Powder is applied on the intersecting area before the patent leather is folded in order for the surfaces not to stick.On account of making the production cost-efficient, it is paramount to cut the big components first, and the small ones from the surface that is left.

Table 5. Answers of Engin Alkan in Stitching Department

Name – Surname : Engin Alkan
Workplace : Raker Company
Department : Stitching
Mission of him in this department : Mechanist
How long does he working in this department? : 30 years
Do you use practical know-hows? : Yes
The know-hows used in stitching department by Engin Alkan; The shoe upper is tested and decided whether it’s easier to manufacture from front or back side of the body. The methods and processes of stitching techniques vary from one craftsman to the other. The decision is obtained from the experiences for the ease of making.The bobbin on the stitching machine is set by wrapping the thread 2 times around the thread’s slot. Therefore, the bobbin stays tighter and also prevents having excess thread around the stitches.

Table 6. Answers of Semih Kılıç in Assembly Department

Name – Surname : Semih Kılıç
Workplace : Raker Company
Department : Assembly
Mission of him in this department : Assembly
How long does he working in this department? : 17 years
Do you use practical know-hows? : Yes
The know-hows used in assembly department by Semih Kılıç; The craftsman spreads soap on the inner surface of the mold in order to place the upper easily.Another method of shaping the shoes are soaking the front part of the footwear, which helps it bend and shape easier.

Table 7. Answers of Fatma Tosun in Finishing and Insole Production Department

Name – Surname : Fatma Tosun
Workplace : Raker Company
Department : Finishing & Insole Production
Mission of her in this department : Finishing & Insole Production
How long does he working in this department? : 4 years
Do you use practical know-hows? : Yes
The know-hows used in finishing department by Fatma Tosun; While the adhesive is wiped out from the intersecting surface of the sole and upper, the craftsman apply soap on the brush in order to prevent harming the imitation.For the shoe laces not to burn they are tied up after the shoes are burned.The patent leather gets matt when they are wiped out with the solvent liquid. It’s more suitable to wipe them out with gas. The know-hows used in insole production department by Fatma Tosun; It’s always better to spray the inner surface of the shoes, rather than spraying the insole itself. The insoles are easier to place and fit by sliding it inside.

When we examine the workers’ answers of interview in Raker Company, the practical know-hows are used mainly in the manufacturing process.

The employees learn these practical know-hows from the master-prentice relationship or their colleagues. Also, they can create their unique practical know-hows from trial-error method.

In the interview, it was found that the managers of the company do not inform the craftsmen about the practical know-hows. Even though they are aware of them, they do not spend effort on improving them or developing new ones.

5.2 Synthesis

When we synthesize literature review and interview analysis, the results that follow was obtained;

When we examine practical know-hows and design solutions according to be cod able and mechanism of transferring, acquisition and accumulation, aggregation and appropriation, we can say that practical know-hows are implicit knowledge and design solutions needs explicit knowledge during formation.

The employees learn these practical know-hows from the master-prentice relationship or their colleagues. Also, they can create their unique practical know-hows from trial-error method. As an example; we can present the answers that Fatma Tosun has given. She said, “For the shoe laces not to burn they are tied up after the shoes are burned.” This practcal know-how was developed by trial-error method. The shoe laces are burnt before the shoe burns, the shoelaces were tied after they got burnt in order to not get the shoe laces burnt for the next part of production.

When we search through the know-hows on cod ability and mechanism of transferring, we came to an answer on the practical know-hows emerge from individual experiences and transferred to their apprentice in non-systematical ways.

In the interview, they were asked how and where they have gained these practical know-hows, and the answers we got prove the synthesis we presumed. About the acquisition and accumulation, practical know-hows can only be acquired through practical experience in relevant context like implicit knowledge. The experiences and knowledge they have in their implicit memory, joins and helps them to construct new practical know-hows.

The design solutions require a brief consisting of explicit knowledge and experience. The differences between implicit and explicit information is about being code able and mechanical characteristics of transferring, acquisition and Potential of aggregation and modes of appropriation.

According to the interview made in Raker Company, the lack of mechanical and chemical qualities in production gives birth for the need of creating practical know-how. Whereas the feedbacks coming from the designers with the mechanical and chemical accumulation transform into explicit know-how. In the interview, the company owners were asked “What are the advantages and disadvantages that the practical know-hows provide?” And from the light of those answers; the practical know-hows are not always standard in production. The knowledge might change in time, and differs from different teachings of their masters, which leads to a transformation and evolution in the methods of production. The shoes that belong to the same series, changes from one craftsman to another.

6. Conclusion

In the research, the aim was to find out the beneficial methods in order to transform the practical know-hows into design solutions in the shoe production.For answering the research question, firstly the practical know-hows and the design solutions were defined. Then a case study was made in the shoe manufacturer Raker Company for finding out more detailed information in the field. In the synthesis and analysis part of the study, the data from the case study and literature review were combined. The results are explained below

By considering and joining the emerging reasons and the consequential benefits of the practical know-hows. The benefits of the transformation of the practical know-hows into design solutions: The craftsman will get the chance of using the same and collective practical know-hows instead of trying to create them themselves. The production will be more cost-efficient. The reduction of the differences and varieties in the processes of manufacturing, this way producing more standard products. The systematical way of gathering this data can be turned into a user guide which can be handed out in workshops and seminars. This way, the implicit knowledge the workers have can be transformed into a limited amount of explicit knowledge.

Another way of transforming explicit information into implicit, is to transmit the information to the ones that have the explicit knowledge, which will make this process more systematical.

7. References

Cross, N. (1982). Designerly Ways of Knowing.

Dorothy. (2006). Manufacture, Strategic Research Agenda, p. 8

Genç, Ö. (Kd. Uzman) (2005). Ayakkabı Sektör Araştırması, Ankara: Türkiye Kalkınma Bankası.

Goffin, K., Koners, U. (2011). Tacit Knowledge, Lessons Learnt, and New Product Development.

Guzman, G. (2009). What is Practical Knowledge? Australia: Griffith University, Gold Coast.

Hetherington, S. (2011). How to Know: A Practicalist Conception of Knowledge.

MEGEP. (2005). Ayakkabı ve Saraciye. Ankara: Mesleki Eğitim ve Öğretim Sisteminin Güçlendirilmesi Projesi.

Polanyi, M. (1958). The Tacit Dimension. Chicago: University of Chicago Press

Racilious K. (2010). National Geographic. Retrieved from: http://news.nationalgeographic.com

Republic of Turkey – Ministry of Economy. (2014). About Production. Retrieved from http://www.tcp.gov.tr/english/sectors/sectoringpdf/footwear.pdf

Textile Exchange. (2009). Shoe Making – How Shoes are Made. Retrieved from http://www.teonline.com/knowledge-centre/shoe-making-how-shoes-made.html

The Brain. (n.d.). Retrieved from (http://thebrain.mcgill.ca/flash/a/a_07/a_07_p/a_07_p_tra/a_07_p_tra.html#3)

TOBB. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.fuarrehberi.org.tr

Author: Ahmet YILMAZER
Supervisor: Elif KOCABIYIK
Department of Industrial Design, Specialization of Product Design, Izmir University of Economics

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